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ElasticSearch采用Java编写,提供简单易用的RESTFul API。我们可以直接通过API接口进行操作。
笔者使用的ElasticSearch版本:elasticsearch-6.3.0

API基本格式 http://:/<索引>/<类型>/<文档id>
常用的HTTP动词 GET/PUT/POST/DELETE
RESTFul资料

索引创建

非结构化创建

使用Head插件直接点击添加索引创建。
直接请求创建 $ curl -XPUT http://localhost:9200/book

结构化创建

方式1:首先创建book索引

PUT http://localhost:9200/book。

再添加novel类型以及定义结构。

POST http://localhost:9200/book/novel/_mappings
{
  "novel": {
    "properties": {
      "title": {
        "type": "text"
      }
    }
  }
}

方式2:直接创建people结构化索引指定配置信息已经数据结构。

// 创建
PUT http://localhost:9200/people
{
	"settings":{
		"number_of_shards": 3,
		"number_of_replicas": 1
	},
	"mappings":{
		"man":{
			"properties":{
				"name":{
					"type":"text"
				},
				"country":{
					"type":"keyword"
				},
				"age":{
					"type":"integer"
				},
				"date":{
					"type":"date",
					"format":"yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss || yyyy-MM-dd || epoch_millis"
				}
			}
		},
		"woman":{
			
		}
	}
}

// 响应
{
    "acknowledged": true,
    "shards_acknowledged": true
}

查看索引信息

查询一个索引是否为结构化索引,我们只需要查询索引信息,然后查看mappings属性是否有值,如果为空,则为非结构化索引,如果有相关的属性值,则是结构化索引。下面查看book索引信息:

GET http://localhost:9200/book?pretty=true
{
    "book": {
        "aliases": {},
        "mappings": {
            "novel": {
                "properties": {
                    "title": {
                        "type": "text"
                    }
                }
            }
        },
        "settings": {
            "index": {
                "creation_date": "1523851142335",
                "number_of_shards": "5",
                "number_of_replicas": "1",
                "uuid": "nbQPVXqqR--eRy_1S3OZqw",
                "version": {
                    "created": "5050199"
                },
                "provided_name": "book"
            }
        }
    }
}

数据插入

根据文档ID插入

直接POST请求 http://:/<索引>/<类型>/<文档id>
传入JSON数据就可以完成数据插入:

POST http://localhost:9200/people/man/1
{
	"name":"达西",
	"conuntry":"China",
	"age":24,
	"date":"1994-11-01"
}

// 响应
{
    "_index": "people",
    "_type": "man",
    "_id": "1",
    "_version": 1,
    "result": "created",
    "_shards": {
        "total": 2,
        "successful": 1,
        "failed": 0
    },
    "created": true
}

自动生成文档ID插入

在发起POST请求的时候,不指定ID的值,ES会自动生成一个ID值。

POST http://localhost:9200/people/man
{
	"name":"超级玛丽",
	"conuntry":"China",
	"age":24,
	"date":"1994-11-01"
}

// 响应
{
    "_index": "people",
    "_type": "man",
    "_id": "AWLNIi3-QcKhhHA2xN6t", // 自动生成的ID值
    "_version": 1,
    "result": "created",
    "_shards": {
        "total": 2,
        "successful": 1,
        "failed": 0
    },
    "created": true
}

数据修改

直接修改

修改people索引中类型为man的ID为1的文档的name字段值为“曹操”

POST http://localhost:9200/people/man/1/_update
{
	"doc":{
		"name":"曹操"
	}
}

// 响应
{
    "_index": "people",
    "_type": "man",
    "_id": "1",
    "_version": 5,
    "result": "updated",
    "_shards": {
        "total": 2,
        "successful": 1,
        "failed": 0
    }
}

脚本修改

修改people索引中类型为man的ID为1的文档的age字段值为自增10。

POST http://localhost:9200/people/man/1/_update
{
	"script":{
		"lang":"painless",
		"inline":"ctx._source.age+=10"
	}
}

// 响应
{
    "_index": "people",
    "_type": "man",
    "_id": "1",
    "_version": 9,
    "result": "updated",
    "_shards": {
        "total": 2,
        "successful": 1,
        "failed": 0
    }
}

另外一种方式

POST http://localhost:9200/people/man/1/_update
{
	"script":{
		"lang":"painless",
		"inline":"ctx._source.age=params.age",
		"params":{
			"age":900
		}
	}
}
// 响应
{
    "_index": "people",
    "_type": "man",
    "_id": "1",
    "_version": 10,
    "result": "updated",
    "_shards": {
        "total": 2,
        "successful": 1,
        "failed": 0
    }
}

删除

文档删除

删除people索引中类型为man,ID为1的文档。

DELETE http://localhost:9200/people/man/1

// 响应
{
    "found": true,
    "_index": "people",
    "_type": "man",
    "_id": "1",
    "_version": 11,
    "result": "deleted",
    "_shards": {
        "total": 2,
        "successful": 1,
        "failed": 0
    }
}

索引删除

删除people索引

DELETE http://localhost:9200/people

// 响应
{
    "acknowledged": true
}

基本查询

数据准备

创建book索引,设置结构:

POST http://localhost:9200/book/novel/_mappings
{
	"novel":{
		"properties":{
			"title":{
				"type":"text"
			},
			"author":{
				"type":"text"
			},
			"word_count":{
				"type":"integer"
			},
			"publish_date":{
				"type":"date",
				"format":"yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss || yyyy-MM-dd || epoch_millis"
			}
		}
	}
}

// 响应
{
    "acknowledged": true
}

录入用于测试的数据:

{"title":"超级玛丽秘籍","author":"王五","word_count":5000,"publish_date":"1994-11-01"}
{"title":"三国志","author":"陈寿","word_count":30000,"publish_date":"1995-11-01"}
{"title":"三国演绎","author":"罗贯中","word_count":30000,"publish_date":"1994-03-01"}
{"title":"玛丽与管道工","author":"玛丽","word_count":10000,"publish_date":"1994-03-01"}
{"title":"史记","author":"司马迁","word_count":20000,"publish_date":"1994-08-01"}
{"title":"如何蹦的更高","author":"玛丽","word_count":20000,"publish_date":"1994-08-01"}

查询

全部查询

查询book索引中类型为novel的所有文档信息。

GET localhost:9200/book/novel/_search?pretty=true

// 响应
{
  "took" : 80,  // 花费时间
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 5, 
    "successful" : 5,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : 5,  //总条数
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "book",
        "_type" : "novel",
        "_id" : "AWLOAAZzQcKhhHA2xN6z",
        "_score" : 1.0,  //评分
        "_source" : {
          "title" : "超级玛丽秘籍",
          "author" : "王五",
          "word_count" : 5000,
          "publish_date" : "1994-11-01"
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "book",
        "_type" : "novel",
        "_id" : "AWLOAEe5QcKhhHA2xN62",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "title" : "玛丽与管道工",
          "author" : "陈寿",
          "word_count" : 10000,
          "publish_date" : "1994-03-01"
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "book",
        "_type" : "novel",
        "_id" : "AWLOAB8bQcKhhHA2xN60",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "title" : "三国志",
          "author" : "陈寿",
          "word_count" : 30000,
          "publish_date" : "1995-11-01"
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "book",
        "_type" : "novel",
        "_id" : "AWLOADU4QcKhhHA2xN61",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "title" : "三国演绎",
          "author" : "罗贯中",
          "word_count" : 30000,
          "publish_date" : "1994-03-01"
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "book",
        "_type" : "novel",
        "_id" : "AWLOAFiZQcKhhHA2xN63",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "title" : "史记",
          "author" : "司马迁",
          "word_count" : 20000,
          "publish_date" : "1994-08-01"
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

精确查询

查询book索引中类型为novel的ID为AWLOAFiZQcKhhHA2xN63的文档信息。

GET localhost:9200/book/novel/AWLOAFiZQcKhhHA2xN63?pretty=true
// 响应
{
  "_index" : "book",
  "_type" : "novel",
  "_id" : "AWLOAFiZQcKhhHA2xN63",
  "_version" : 1,
  "found" : true,
  "_source" : {
    "title" : "史记",
    "author" : "司马迁",
    "word_count" : 20000,
    "publish_date" : "1994-08-01"
  }
}

限制查询条数

搜索从第一条开始的1条数据。

POST http://localhost:9200/book/novel/_search
{
	"query":{
		"match_all":{}
	},
	"from":1,
	"size":1
}

// 响应
{
    "took": 37,
    "timed_out": false,
    "_shards": {
        "total": 5,
        "successful": 5,
        "failed": 0
    },
    "hits": {
        "total": 5,
        "max_score": 1,
        "hits": [
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOAEe5QcKhhHA2xN62",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "玛丽与管道工",
                    "author": "陈寿",
                    "word_count": 10000,
                    "publish_date": "1994-03-01"
                }
            }
        ]
    }
}

关键词排序查询

查询标题里含有“三国”的书籍,并且按出版日期降序排列。

POST http://localhost:9200/book/novel/_search
{
	"query":{
		"match":{
			"title":"三国"
		}
	},
	"sort":[
		{
			"publish_date":{"order":"desc"}
		}
	]
}

// 响应
{
    "took": 200,
    "timed_out": false,
    "_shards": {
        "total": 5,
        "successful": 5,
        "failed": 0
    },
    "hits": {
        "total": 2,
        "max_score": 0.34450945,
        "hits": [
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOAB8bQcKhhHA2xN60",
                "_score": 0.34450945,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "三国志",
                    "author": "陈寿",
                    "word_count": 30000,
                    "publish_date": "1995-11-01"
                }
            },
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOADU4QcKhhHA2xN61",
                "_score": 0.34450945,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "三国演绎",
                    "author": "罗贯中",
                    "word_count": 30000,
                    "publish_date": "1994-03-01"
                }
            }
        ]
    }
}

聚合查询

类似于数据库中的分组查询,下面的例子演示按照书籍字数统计数据,按照发布时间统计数量。

POST http://localhost:9200/book/novel/_search
{
	"aggs":{
		"group_by_word_count":{
			"terms":{
				"field":"word_count"
			}
		},
		"group_by_author":{
			"terms":{
				"field":"publish_date"
			}
		}
	}
	
}
// 响应
{
    "took": 4,
    "timed_out": false,
    "_shards": {
        "total": 5,
        "successful": 5,
        "failed": 0
    },
    "hits": {
        "total": 5,
        "max_score": 1,
        "hits": [
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOAAZzQcKhhHA2xN6z",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "超级玛丽秘籍",
                    "author": "王五",
                    "word_count": 5000,
                    "publish_date": "1994-11-01"
                }
            },
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOAEe5QcKhhHA2xN62",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "玛丽与管道工",
                    "author": "陈寿",
                    "word_count": 10000,
                    "publish_date": "1994-03-01"
                }
            },
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOAB8bQcKhhHA2xN60",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "三国志",
                    "author": "陈寿",
                    "word_count": 30000,
                    "publish_date": "1995-11-01"
                }
            },
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOADU4QcKhhHA2xN61",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "三国演绎",
                    "author": "罗贯中",
                    "word_count": 30000,
                    "publish_date": "1994-03-01"
                }
            },
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOAFiZQcKhhHA2xN63",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "史记",
                    "author": "司马迁",
                    "word_count": 20000,
                    "publish_date": "1994-08-01"
                }
            }
        ]
    },
    "aggregations": {
        "group_by_word_count": {
            "doc_count_error_upper_bound": 0,
            "sum_other_doc_count": 0,
            "buckets": [
                {
                    "key": 30000,
                    "doc_count": 2
                },
                {
                    "key": 5000,
                    "doc_count": 1
                },
                {
                    "key": 10000,
                    "doc_count": 1
                },
                {
                    "key": 20000,
                    "doc_count": 1
                }
            ]
        },
        "group_by_author": {
            "doc_count_error_upper_bound": 0,
            "sum_other_doc_count": 0,
            "buckets": [
                {
                    "key": 762480000000,
                    "key_as_string": "1994-03-01 00:00:00",
                    "doc_count": 2
                },
                {
                    "key": 775699200000,
                    "key_as_string": "1994-08-01 00:00:00",
                    "doc_count": 1
                },
                {
                    "key": 783648000000,
                    "key_as_string": "1994-11-01 00:00:00",
                    "doc_count": 1
                },
                {
                    "key": 815184000000,
                    "key_as_string": "1995-11-01 00:00:00",
                    "doc_count": 1
                }
            ]
        }
    }
}

统计查询

聚合查询也可以用于查询统计信息,下面的例子演示统计书籍字数信息,统计书籍字数最小的字数信息。

POST http://localhost:9200/book/novel/_search
{
	"aggs":{
		"grades_word_count":{
			"stats":{
				"field":"word_count"
			}
		},
		"min_word_count":{
			"min":{
				"field":"word_count"
			}
		}
	}
	
}
// 响应
{
    "took": 44,
    "timed_out": false,
    "_shards": {
        "total": 5,
        "successful": 5,
        "failed": 0
    },
    "hits": {
        "total": 5,
        "max_score": 1,
        "hits": [
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOAAZzQcKhhHA2xN6z",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "超级玛丽秘籍",
                    "author": "王五",
                    "word_count": 5000,
                    "publish_date": "1994-11-01"
                }
            },
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOAEe5QcKhhHA2xN62",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "玛丽与管道工",
                    "author": "陈寿",
                    "word_count": 10000,
                    "publish_date": "1994-03-01"
                }
            },
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOAB8bQcKhhHA2xN60",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "三国志",
                    "author": "陈寿",
                    "word_count": 30000,
                    "publish_date": "1995-11-01"
                }
            },
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOADU4QcKhhHA2xN61",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "三国演绎",
                    "author": "罗贯中",
                    "word_count": 30000,
                    "publish_date": "1994-03-01"
                }
            },
            {
                "_index": "book",
                "_type": "novel",
                "_id": "AWLOAFiZQcKhhHA2xN63",
                "_score": 1,
                "_source": {
                    "title": "史记",
                    "author": "司马迁",
                    "word_count": 20000,
                    "publish_date": "1994-08-01"
                }
            }
        ]
    },
    "aggregations": {
        "grades_word_count": {
            "count": 5,
            "min": 5000,
            "max": 30000,
            "avg": 19000,
            "sum": 95000
        },
        "min_word_count": {
            "value": 5000
        }
    }
}

参考资料

Elasticsearch Reference
Elasticsearch: 权威指南 (低版本)

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